When should you see someone for low back pain? This is a tricky question as it comes with the big “it depends” tag attached. Studies show that up to 90% of low back pain resolves on its own. On the surface, this number is encouraging, however, roughly three-quarters of patients will have recurrent low back pain within a year. Lastly, only 5% of people with acute low back pain will go on to develop chronic low back pain with disability. How do we determine who the 5% is and how do we make it 0%?
This is a tricky question that has stumped researchers and healthcare providers. There are many proposed answers to treating pain, some more beneficial than others. What we do know is treating chronic pain – meaning pain lasting more than three months – is more difficult than treating acute pain. Decades of research show patients achieve better outcomes when they are treating in the acute stage (less than 6 weeks) compared to the chronic stage (more than 3 months). Does this mean all acute pain needs treatment? Not necessarily.
When to seek care for low back pain
If you recently helped a friend move, sat at a desk for 12 hours, or decided you were going to save some money and install a fence yourself, chances are you will develop low back pain. This is normal. If our body is overloaded, it often responds with pain or soreness to cue us to take it easy. The pain will resolve in a couple of days. Avoid bed rest and resume normal activities (wait on installing another fence for a week or so). These scenarios, of course, are not the only causes of low back pain.
If you find yourself routinely having episodes of low back pain, or you are experiencing it with a simple activity, then it would be beneficial to have a physical therapist take a look. Why consult a PT and not a physician? Allow me to explain.
Medication and surgery don’t fix the problem
Physical therapy involves a comprehensive assessment of all potential contributing factors to your low back pain, and it provides non-invasive treatments to build your body’s strength and resilience. Research clearly shows that low back pain cannot be determined through imaging, such as MRI. Not only do the MRI findings not explain low back pain – patients without pain have herniations and patients with pain have clean MRIs – they often lead to worse outcomes. Opioids and other pain medication are simply band-aids with heavy side effects. Blocking the pain does not address potential factors leading to the pain. Lastly, surgical interventions have poor long-term outcomes, especially when the pain reaches a chronic state. Most low back pain can be successfully treated with physical therapy, which is both safe and cost-effective.
How to best address pain
Pain has multiple potential causes, but the best way to ultimately address it is through a patient’s lifestyle. Exercise, adequate sleep, proper nutrition, and resuming daily activities can resolve and keep low back pain at bay. Acute pain is often the result of overloading your body. This can either be from too much activity or too little recovery. A physical therapist can help you determine what the causes of pain were and design exercise programs to achieve your goals and long-term outcomes.
The other option people may seek is the wait-and-see approach. This can work if you have a regular exercise program, sleep and eat well, and resume your normal daily activity. The issue is when wait-and-see is coupled with inactivity, frequently focusing on the pain, and taking over-the-counter pain medication. Bed rest and inactivity is not the answer for recovering from most causes of pain, especially low back pain. Inactivity can delay recovery. Our muscles weaken, our endurance declines, and we become more sensitive to painful movements. These changes often take longer to treat as well. Recovery is still attainable – you won’t need surgery – but the duration of care will increase
So, when should you consult a PT?
Going back to the original question – when should someone seek care – I would recommend at least consulting with a PT soon after the development of low back pain. This is one of the benefits of having a family PT, similar to have a primary care physician. You may only see the PT for a single treatment. But a session that provides reassurance that the issue is not serious along with few recommendations of activity tailored to your body and lifestyle is of far greater value than medication prescriptions. Seeking early care does not commit you to any treatment plan, but gives you answers and helps prevent potential costly, invasive care in the future.
As stated earlier, research clearly shows early intervention from PT is better than delayed or no PT. The results are better, and the cost is lower. Less time and effort are needed as fewer negative changes have occurred, such as loss of muscle and increased sensitivity to painful movements. Developing a partnership with a local PT can help you address potential concerns rapidly, rather than waiting until a problem becomes more serious. If the acute low back pain necessitates a full plan of care with multiple sessions, then your local PT will be there for you.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Zach Walston, PT, DPT, OCS serves as the National Director of Quality and Research at PT Solutions. Zach grew up in Northern Virginia and earned his Bachelor of Science in Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. He then received his Doctorate of Physical Therapy from Emory University before graduating from the PT Solutions’ Orthopaedic Residency Program in 2015. Zach now serves as the Residency Program Coordinator and the director of the practice’s Clinical Mentorship Program providing training for over 100 physical therapists a year.
Zach has numerous research publications in peer-reviewed rehabilitation and medical journals. He has developed and taught weekend continuing education courses in the areas of plan of care development, exercise prescription, pain science, and nutrition. He has presented research at numerous national conferences including APTA CSM, APTA NEXT, and the ACRM annual conference.
Zach is an active member of the Orthopedic and Research sections of the American Physical Therapy Association and the Physical Therapy Association of Georgia. He currently served on the APTA Science and Practice Affairs Committee and the PTAG Barney Poole Leadership Academy.
Zach currently lives in Marietta, GA with his wife, son, and two dogs. Connect with Zach on Twitter, LinkedIn, and his website.